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Voce sabia que

Transformações eufónicas


 léxikongo Índice 

 

PortuguêsFrançaisEnglish

Transformações eufónicas causadas por nasal N e N’.


Nota. – O nasal N (NI) sempre provoca uma aspiração após os explosivos mudo: p, t, h. Não marcamos essa aspiração; A ausência de um apóstrofo indica suficientemente o que está envolvido. Esta aspiração é mais ou menos forte de acordo com as regiões e pessoas, mas não está inteiramente ausente.


N ou N’ + B = MB, M’B      bwana: encontrar.

N, pron. prefixo, 1e pers. sing. : n + bwene = mbwene,
N, pron. infixo, 1e pers. sing. : lu + n + bwene = lumbwene.
N’, pron. infixo, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + bwene = lum’bwene.

Bwaka : ser vermelho, madurecer.

N, prefixo nominal classe N – N : n + bwaki = mbwaki.

Bâsa : serrar.


N’, prefixo nominal classe MU – MI : n’ + basi = m’basi,

N ou N’ + P = MP, M’P.  Pasula : serrar.

N, pron. prefixo, 1º pers. sing. : n + pasudi = mpasudi.
N, pron. infixo, 1º pers. sing. : lu + n + pasudi = lumpasudi.
N’, pron, infixo, 3e pers, sing: lu + n’ + pasudi = lum’pasudi.

Pêla : varrer.


N, prefixo nominal classe N – N : n + pela = mpela.
N’, prefixo nominal classe MU – MI : n’ + pedi = m’pedi
N ou N’ + F = MF, M’F.  Fwema : se facher,

N, pron. prefixo, 1º pers. sing. : n + fwemene : mfwemene.
N, pron. infixo, 1º pers. sing. : lu + n + fwemese : lumfwemese,
N’ pron. infixo, 3ª pers. sing. : lu + n’ + fwemese = lum’fwemese.
N, prefixo nominal classe N – N : n + fwemoso = mfwemoso,
N‘, prefixo nominal classe MU – MI : n’ + fwemi = m’fwemi,


N + L = ND
N’ + L = N’L      Lânda : seguir

N, pron. prefixo, 1e pers. sing. : n + landidi = ndandidi (ndendi).
N, pron. infixo, 1e pers. sing. : lu + n + landidi = lundandidi.
N’, pron. infixo, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + landidi = lun’landidi.
N, prefixo nominal classe N – N : n + landani = ndandani,
N’, prefixo nominal classe MU – MI : n’ + landi = n’landi


N + W = NGW
N’ + W = N’W. } Wawasa : reconciliar.

N, pron. prefixo, 1e pers. sing. : n + wawase = ngwawase.
N, pron. infixo, 1e pers. sing.: lu + n + wawase = lungwawase.
N’, pron. infixo, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + wawase = lun’ wawase.
N, prefixo nom. classe N – N : n + wawani = ngwawani.
N’, prefixo nom. classe MU – MI : n’+ wawasi = n’wawasi.


N + L Y = NGY.
N’ + Y = N’Y.       Yambila : falar, conversar

N, pron. prefixo, 1ª pers. sing. : n + yambidi = ngyambidi.
N, pron. infixo, 1ª pers. sing.: lu + n + yambisi = lungyambisi.
N’, pron. infixo, 3ª pers. sing. : lu + n’ + yambisi = lun’yambisi.
N, prefixo nom. classe N – N : n + yambila = ngyambila.
N’, prefixo nom. classe MU – M I : n’ + yambisi = n’yambisi.


N + M = MB.
NI + M = M’M.    Mona : ver.

N, pron. infixo, 1ª pers. sing. : n + mwêne = mbwêne.
N, pron. prefixo, 2ª pers. sing. : ba + mwêne = bambwêne.
N’, pron. infixo, 3ª pers. sing. : ba + n’ + mwêne = bam’ mwêne.
N, prefixo nom. classe N – N : n + mona = mbona.
N’, prefixo nom. classe MU – MI : m’ + moni = m’ moni.


N + N = ND.
N’ + N = N’N. Nwana : lutar (se bater).

N, pron. prefixo, 1e pers. sing. : n + nwene = ndwene.
N, pron. infixo, 1e pers. sing. : ba + n + nwanisi = bandwanisi.
N’, pron. infixo, 3e pers. sing. : ba + n’ + nwanisi = ban’ nwanisi.
N, prefixo nom. classe N – N : n + nwana = ndwana.
N’, prefixo nom. classe MU – MI : n’ + nwanini = n’nwanini,


N + V = MV.
N’ + V = M’V.
N + (v)1 = MP.
N’ + (v)1 = M’(v)     Vûnda : descansar.

N, pron. prefixo, 1e  pers. sing. : n -t- vûndidi = mvûndidi.
N, pron. infixo, 1e pers. sing: lu + n + vûndisi = lumvûndisi.
N’, pron. infixo, 3e pers. sing: lu + n’ + vûndisi = lum’vûndisi.
N’, prefixo nom. classe N – N : n + vûndulu = mvûndulu.


Vunga : pastar.

N’, prefixo nom. classe MU – MI : n’ + vungi = m’vungi.


Vukumuna : tentar (tentação)

N, pron. prefixo, 1e pers. sing. : n + vukumuni = mpukumuni.
N, pron. infixo, 1e pers. sing. : lu + n + vukumuni = lumpukumuni.
N’, pron, infixo, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + vukumuni = lum’vukumuni.
N, prefixo:nom. classe N – N : n + vukumuna = mpukumuna.
N’, prefixo nom. classe MU – MI : n’ + vukumuni = m’vukumuni.

 

 

Transformations euphoniques provoquées par les nasales N et N’.


Remarque. – La nasale N (NI) provoque toujours une aspiration après les explosives muettes : p, t, h. Nous ne marquons pas cette aspiration; l’absence d’apostrophe indique suffisamment de quoi il s’agit. Cette aspiration est plus ou moins forte d’après les regions et les personnes, mais elle n’est jamais completement absente.


N ou N’ + B = MB, M’B      bwana: rencontrer.

N, pron. prefixe, 1e pers. sing. : n + bwene = mbwene,
N, pron. infixe, 1e pers. sing. : lu + n + bwene = lumbwene.
N’, pron. infixe, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + bwene = lum’bwene.

Bwaka : être rouge.

N, prefixe nominal classe N – N : n + bwaki = mbwaki.

Bâsa : scier.


N’, prefixe nominal classe MU – MI : n’ + basi = m’basi,

N ou N’ + P = MP, M’P.  Pasula : scier.

N, pron. prefixe, 1º pers. sing. : n + pasudi = mpasudi.
N, pron. infixe, 1º pers. sing. : lu + n + pasudi = lumpasudi.
N’, pron, infixe, 3e pers, sing: lu + n’ + pasudi = lum’pasudi.

Pêla : balayer.


N, prefixe nominal classe N – N : n + pela = mpela.
N’, prefixe nominal classe MU – MI : n’ + pedi = m’pedi
N ou N’ + F = MF, M’F.  Fwema : se facher,

N, pron. prefixe, 1º pers. sing. : n + fwemene : mfwemene.
N, pron. infixe, 1º pers. sing. : lu + n + fwemese : lumfwemese,
N’ pron. infixe, 3ª pers. sing. : lu + n’ + fwemese = lum’fwemese.
N, prefixe nominal classe N – N : n + fwemoso = mfwemoso,
N‘, prefixe nominal classe MU – MI : n’ + fwemi = m’fwemi,


N + L = ND
N’ + L = N’L      Lânda : suivre

N, pron. prefixe, 1e pers. sing. : n + landidi = ndandidi (ndendi).
N, pron. infixe, 1e pers. sing. : lu + n + landidi = lundandidi.
N’, pron. infixe, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + landidi = lun’landidi.
N, prefixe nominal classe N – N : n + landani = ndandani,
N’, prefixe nominal classe MU – MI : n’ + landi = n’landi


N + W = NGW
N’ + W = N’W. } Wawasa : reconcilier.

N, pron. prefixe, 1e pers. sing. : n + wawase = ngwawase.
N, pron. infixe, 1e pers. sing.: lu + n + wawase = lungwawase.
N’, pron. infixe, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + wawase = lun’ wawase.
N, prefixe nom. classe N – N : n + wawani = ngwawani.
N’, prefixe nom. classe MU – MI : n’+ wawasi = n’wawasi.


N + L Y = NGY.
N’ + Y = N’Y.       Yambila : parler, converser

N, pron. prefixe, 1ª pers. sing. : n + yambidi = ngyambidi.
N, pron. infixe , 1ª pers. sing.: lu + n + yambisi = lungyambisi.
N’, pron. infixe, 3ª pers. sing. : lu + n’ + yambisi = lun’yambisi.
N, prefixe nom. classe N – N : n + yambila = ngyambila.
N’, prefixe nom. classe MU – M I : n’ + yambisi = n’yambisi.


N + M = MB.
NI + M = M’M.    Mona : voir.

N, pron. infixe, 1ª pers. sing. : n + mwêne = mbwêne.
N, pron. prefixe, 2ª pers. sing. : ba + mwêne = bambwêne.
N’, pron. infixe, 3ª pers. sing. : ba + n’ + mwêne = bam’ mwêne.
N, prefixe nom. classe N – N : n + mona = mbona.
N’, prefixe nom. classe MU – MI : m’ + moni = m’ moni.


N + N = ND.
N’ + N = N’N. Nwana : se bâttre.

N, pron. prefixe, 1e pers. sing. : n + nwene = ndwene.
N, pron. infixe, 1e pers. sing. : ba + n + nwanisi = bandwanisi.
N’, pron. infixe, 3e pers. sing. : ba + n’ + nwanisi = ban’ nwanisi.
N, prefixe nom. classe N – N : n + nwana = ndwana.
N’, prefixe nom. classe MU – MI : n’ + nwanini = n’nwanini,


N + V = MV.
N’ + V = M’V.
N + (v)1 = MP.
N’ + (v)1 = M’(v)     Vûnda : se reposer

N, pron. prefixe, 1e  pers. sing. : n -t- vûndidi = mvûndidi.
N, pron. infixe, 1e pers. sing: lu + n + vûndisi = lumvûndisi.
N’, pron. infixe, 3e pers. sing: lu + n’ + vûndisi = lum’vûndisi.
N’, prefixe nom. classe N – N : n + vûndulu = mvûndulu.


Vunga : paître.

N’, prefixe nom. cIasse MU – MI : n’ + vungi = m’vungi.


Vukumuna : tenter

N, pron. prefixe, 1e pers. sing. : n + vukumuni = mpukumuni.
N, pron. infixe, 1e pers. sing. : lu + n + vukumuni = lumpukumuni.
N’, pron, infixe, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + vukumuni = lum’vukumuni.
N, prefixe:nom. classe N – N : n + vukumuna = mpukumuna.
N’, prefixe nom. classe MU – MI : n’ + vukumuni = m’vukumuni.

 

 

 

Euphonic Transformations Caused by the Nasals N e N’. 


 

Note. – The nasal N (NI) always causes an aspiration after the mute explosives: p, t, h. We do not mark this aspiration; The absence of an apostrophe indicates sufficiently what is involved. This aspiration is more or less strong from regions and persons, but it is not entirely absent.


N ou N’ + B = MB, M’B      bwana: meet.

N, pron. prefixe, 1st pers. Sing. : n + bwene = mbwene,
N, pron. infixe, 1st pers. sing. : lu + n + bwene = lumbwene.
N’, pron. infixe, 3st pers. sing. : lu + n’ + bwene = lum’bwene.

Bwaka : be red.

N, prefix nominal class N – N : n + bwaki = mbwaki.

Bâsa : sawing.


N’, prefix nominal class MU – MI : n’ + basi = m’basi,

N ou N’ + P = MP, M’P.  Pasula : sawing.

N, pron. prefix, 1st pers. sing. : n + pasudi = mpasudi.
N, pron. infixe, 1st pers. sing. : lu + n + pasudi = lumpasudi.
N’, pron, infixe, 3st pers, sing: lu + n’ + pasudi = lum’pasudi.

Pêla : sweep.


N, prefix nominal class N – N : n + pela = mpela.
N’, prefix nominal class MU – MI : n’ + pedi = m’pedi
N ou N’ + F = MF, M’F.  Fwema : get angry,

N, pron. prefix, 1º pers. sing. : n + fwemene : mfwemene.
N, pron. infix, 1º pers. sing. : lu + n + fwemese : lumfwemese,
N’ pron. infix, 3ª pers. sing. : lu + n’ + fwemese = lum’fwemese.
N, prefix nominal class N – N : n + fwemoso = mfwemoso,
N‘, prefix nominal class MU – MI : n’ + fwemi = m’fwemi,


N + L = ND
N’ + L = N’L      Lânda : to follow

N, pron. prefix, 1e pers. sing. : n + landidi = ndandidi (ndendi).
N, pron. infix, 1e pers. sing. : lu + n + landidi = lundandidi.
N’, pron. infix, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + landidi = lun’landidi.
N, prefix nominal class N – N : n + landani = ndandani,
N’, prefix nominal class MU – MI : n’ + landi = n’landi


N + W = NGW
N’ + W = N’W. } Wawasa : to reconcile – reconciliation.

N, pron. prefix, 1e pers. sing. : n + wawase = ngwawase.
N, pron. infix, 1e pers. sing.: lu + n + wawase = lungwawase.
N’, pron. infix, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + wawase = lun’ wawase.
N, prefix nom. class N – N : n + wawani = ngwawani.
N’, prefix nom. class MU – MI : n’+ wawasi = n’wawasi.


N + L Y = NGY.
N’ + Y = N’Y.       Yambila : to talk, to converse

N, pron. prefix, 1ª pers. sing. : n + yambidi = ngyambidi.
N, pron. infix , 1ª pers. sing.: lu + n + yambisi = lungyambisi.
N’, pron. infix, 3ª pers. sing. : lu + n’ + yambisi = lun’yambisi.
N, prefix nom. class N – N : n + yambila = ngyambila.
N’, prefix nom. class MU – M I : n’ + yambisi = n’yambisi.


N + M = MB.
NI + M = M’M.    Mona : voir.

N, pron. infixe, 1ª pers. sing. : n + mwêne = mbwêne.
N, pron. prefixe, 2ª pers. sing. : ba + mwêne = bambwêne.
N’, pron. infixe, 3ª pers. sing. : ba + n’ + mwêne = bam’ mwêne.
N, prefix nom. class N – N : n + mona = mbona.
N’, prefix nom. class MU – MI : m’ + moni = m’ moni.


N + N = ND.
N’ + N = N’N. Nwana : se bâttre.

N, pron. prefix, 1e pers. sing. : n + nwene = ndwene.
N, pron. infix, 1e pers. sing. : ba + n + nwanisi = bandwanisi.
N’, pron. infix, 3e pers. sing. : ba + n’ + nwanisi = ban’ nwanisi.
N, prefix nom. class N – N : n + nwana = ndwana.
N’, prefix nom. class MU – MI : n’ + nwanini = n’nwanini,


N + V = MV.
N’ + V = M’V.
N + (v)1 = MP.
N’ + (v)1 = M’(v)     Vûnda : to rest.

N, pron. prefix, 1e  pers. sing. : n -t- vûndidi = mvûndidi.
N, pron. infix, 1e pers. sing: lu + n + vûndisi = lumvûndisi.
N’, pron. infix, 3e pers. sing: lu + n’ + vûndisi = lum’vûndisi.
N’, prefix nom. class N – N : n + vûndulu = mvûndulu.


Vunga : to graze.

N’, prefix nom. class MU – MI : n’ + vungi = m’vungi.


Vukumuna : to attempt.

N, pron. prefix, 1e pers. sing. : n + vukumuni = mpukumuni.
N, pron. infix, 1e pers. sing. : lu + n + vukumuni = lumpukumuni.
N’, pron, infix, 3e pers. sing. : lu + n’ + vukumuni = lum’vukumuni.
N, prefix:nom. class N – N : n + vukumuna = mpukumuna.
N’, prefix nom. class MU – MI : n’ + vukumuni = m’vukumuni.

 

 

 


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